• Assistant Professor (starting Fall 2018) | Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology | The Ohio State University, USA
  • Humboldt Postdoctoral Fellow (starting Fall 2017) | Department of Collective Behavior | Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany 2017-2018
  • Postdoctoral Fellow | Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), Panama


PUBLICATIONS (Google Scholar Profile)

  1. Carter G, Farine D, Wilkinson G. 2017. Social bet-hedging in vampire bats. Biology Letters. (linkopen access until June 7th)(text), press:, CS Monitor)
  2. Delpietro HA, Russo R, Carter G, Lord R, Delpietro G. 2017. Reproductive seasonality, sex ratio, and philopatry in Argentina’s common vampire bats. Royal Society Open Science. (open access)
  3. Carter G, Wilkinson G, Page R. 2017. Food-sharing vampire bats are more nepotistic under conditions of perceived risk. Behavioral Ecology.  doi:10.1093/beheco/arx006 (PDF) (data)
  4. Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2016. Common vampire bat contact calls attract past food-sharing partners. Animal Behavior. 116:45-51. (PDF) (data)
  5. Wilkinson G, Carter G, Bohn K, Adams D. 2016. Non-kin cooperation in bats. Philosophical Transactions B. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0095 (PDF)
  6. Carter G. 2016. Blood sharing in vampire bats. In: Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. (PDF)
  7. Carter G, Bohn K. 2016. “Altruism” in nonkin. In: Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. (link)
  8. Bohn K, Carter G. 2016. Reciprocal Altruism and Cooperation for Mutual Benefit. In: Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. (link)
  9. Carter G. 2016. Nonhuman reciprocal altruism. In Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. (link)
  10. Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2015. Social benefits of non-kin food sharing by female vampire bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 282: 20152524. (PDF) (data)(supplement) press: SapiensNational Geographic,, Science News, Broadly 
  11. Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2015. Intranasal oxytocin increases social grooming and food sharing in the common vampire bat. Hormones and Behavior. 75: 150-153. (PDF) press: Newsweek
  12. Carter G, Leffer L. 2015. Social grooming in bats: are vampire bats exceptional? PLOS One. 10(10):e0138430. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138430. (open access) (data) press: National Geographic,  NewStatesmanThe Australian,  iScience,  Nature World News
  13. Carter G, Stewart A. 2015. The floral bat lure dimethyl disulphide does not attract the palaeotropical Dawn bat. Journal of Pollination Ecology. 17: 129-131. (open access)
  14. Carter G, Schoeppler D, Manthey M, Knoernschild M, Denzinger A. 2015. Distress calls of a fast-flying aerial-hawking bat (Molossus molossus) provoke inspection flights but not cooperative mobbing. PLOS One. 10(9): e0136146. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136146  (open access) (data)
  15. Carter, G. 2014. The reciprocity controversy. Animal Behavior and Cognition. 1(3), 368-386. doi:10.12966/abc.08.11.2014 (open access)
  16. Kershenbaum A, D Blumstein, M Roch, C Akcay, G Backus, M Bee, K Bohn, Y Cao, G Carter et al. (42 authors) 2014. Acoustic sequences in non-human animals: A tutorial review and prospectus. Biological Reviews. doi:10.1111/brv.12160 (PDF)
  17. Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2013. Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity? Communicative & Integrative Biology. 6:e25783. (open access)
  18. Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2013. Food sharing in vampire bats: reciprocal help predicts donations more than relatedness or harassment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 280: 1753. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2573 (open access, text supplement, videoposter, data) press: Current Biology, BBCEarth Sky, Science News
  19. Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2013. Cooperation and conflict in the social lives of bats. In: Adams, R, Pedersen, S (eds). Bat Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer Science Press. pg 225-242. (PDF) (e-book)
  20. Carter G, R Logsdon, B Arnold, A Menchaca, R Medellin. 2012. Adult vampire bats produce contact calls when isolated: acoustic variation between species, colonies, and individuals. PLOS One. 7(6): e38791. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038791. (open access)
  21. Carter G, J Ratcliffe, and B Galef. 2010. Flower bats (Glossophaga soricina) and fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) rely on spatial cues over shapes and scents when relocating food. PLOS One. 5(5): e10808. (open access)
  22. Carter G, B Fenton, and P Faure. 2009. White-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) exchange contact calls. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 87:604-608. (PDF)
  23. Carter G, M Skowronski, P Faure, B Fenton. 2008. Antiphonal calling allows individual discrimination in white-winged vampire bats. Animal Behaviour. 76:1343-1355. (PDF) (Video supplement) press: Discovery News
  24. Carter G, D Riskin. 2006. Mystacina tuberculata. Mammalian Species. 790:1-8. (PDF)
  25. Riskin D, S Parsons, W Schutt, G Carter, J Hermanson. 2006. Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) and the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). Journal of Experimental Biology. 209:1725-1736. (PDF) press: Slate, JEB
  26. Carter G, C Coen, L Stenzler, I Lovette. 2006. Avian host DNA isolated from the feces of white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi)Acta Chiropterologica. 8(1):255-259. (PDF) press: Living Bird

Data and media not associated with published paper

  1. Carter, G. 2016. Footage of feeding by the hairy-legged vampire bat Diphylla ecaudata refutes the hypothesis that this vampire bat sucks. Figshare.
  2. Carter, G. 2016. Footage of regurgitated food sharing among adult common vampire bats. Figshare.

Five example posts from

  1. The goals of science vs scientists
  2. Can friendships reduce the burden on family?
  3. Caves and the origins of echolocation
  4. Bats and the huddler’s dilemma
  5. On reciprocal altruism

Other publications

  • Carter, G. 2015. Cooperation and social bonds in common vampire bats. PhD Thesis. University of Maryland.
  • Carter G. 2011. The future of bat research and conservation. Sonorensis Magazine: Celebrating Bats. Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. 31:1. (PDF)
  • Carter G. 2011. Food sharing in vampire bats. Bat Conservation Journal. Organization for Bat Conservation. Fall 2011 Issue.
  • Carter G. 2005. Bat diversity and abundance in Cusuco National Park core zone, Honduras. Internal report for Operation Wallacea, UK. (PDF)


  • 2017     National Geographic Grant (WW-057R- 17, $19,275)
  • 2017     Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellowship Research Support ($4K)
  • 2013     Animal Behavior Society Student Research Grant ($1,250)
  • 2013     NSF Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant ($19,737)
  • 2012     Grant-in-Aid of Research, American Society of Mammalogists ($1,500)
  • 2010     Grant-in-Aid of Research, American Society of Mammalogists ($1,439)
  • 2010     Research Grant, Explorer’s Club Washington Group ($1,000)
  • 2010     Cosmos Scholar Grant ($2,000)
  • 2010     Sigma Xi Grant in Aid of Research ($400)


  • 2017     “Tracking and manipulating cooperative relationships in vampire bats” Smithsonian Scholarly Studies Award to Rachel Page ($54,168)
  • 2015     “Acoustic-GPS tracking of frog-eating bats to reveal foraging flexibility in a changing world” National Geographic Grant to Yossi Yovel


  • 2017     Humboldt Postdoctoral Fellowship ($34K/year)
  • 2017     Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellowship ($24K/six-months)
  • 2015     Fulbright Postdoctoral Fellowship Award ($40K/year, declined)
  • 2011     Eugenie Clark Summer Fellowship, University of Maryland ($2,100)
  • 2011     Ford Predoctoral Fellowship, National Academy of Sciences ($22K/year)
  • 2009    Graduate Fellowship, University of Maryland ($15,000)
  • 2007    Ontario Graduate Scholarship ($10,000)
  • 2001     Robert & Helen Appel Presidential Research Scholarship, Cornell


  • 2016     NSF travel award, International Society for Behavioral Ecology ($1000)
  • 2015     Biology Dept Grad Student Research Award, University of Maryland, (UMD) ($400)
  • 2014     Interdivisional Mentoring Award, American Psychological Association ($500)
  • 2013     Research Award, BEES Graduate Program, UMD ($250)
  • 2013     Howard J. Brinkley Travel Award, UMD Biology Department ($600)
  • 2013     Travel Grant, American Society of Mammalogists ($300)
  • 2013     Merit Award, UMD Biological Sciences Graduate Program ($1000)
  • 2013     Student Research Video Award, UMD Biology Graduate Program ($500)
  • 2012     Best poster award in category, UMD Bioscience Day
  • 2008     A. Brazier Howell Award, American Society of Mammalogists ($1,500)
  • 2007     Graduate Student Teaching Award, University of Western Ontario ($600)
  • 2005     Magna cum laude, Cornell University
  • 2005     Paul Schreurs Memorial Award, for excellence in undergrad research ($500)
  • 2004     Bat Research News Award, North American Society for Bat Research ($500)


Invited Talks

  • 2017   Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (job interview)
  • 2016   Naturkundemuseum, Berlin, Germany (based on visit)
  • 2016   Psych Dept, University of Washington (job interview)
  • 2015    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. “Tupper Talk”
  • 2015    Cambridge University, UK (based on visit)
  • 2014    Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas.
  • 2014    Eastern Michigan University Biology Department, Ann Arbor, MI.
  • 2014    American Psychological Association, Washington, DC
  • 2012    Oakland University, Michigan, USA.
  • 2007    Instituto de Ecología, UNAM, Mexico.

Conference Presentations

  1. Crisp R and Carter G. 2017. STRI Fellows Symposium. Panama City, Panama. (poster)
  2. Carter G. 2016. International Society for Behavioral Ecology. Exeter, UK.
  3. Carter G. 2016. Manipulation of vampire bat social networks. STRI Fellows Symposium, Panama City, Panama.
  4. Carter G. 2015. Why vampires network. 45th meeting of the North American Society for Bat Research, Monterey Bay, CA.
  5. Carter G. 2014. Complex cooperation: Food sharing in vampire bats is not simply “Tit for tat”. 44th North American Symposium on Bat Research, Albany, NY.
  6. Carter G. 2013. Do vampire bats perform reciprocity? International Bat Research Conference. San Jose, Costa Rica.
  7. Carter G. 2013. Does reciprocity explain food sharing in vampire bats? Animal Behavior Society Meeting. Denver, CO.
  8. Carter G. 2012. Social bonds, kinship, and cooperative food sharing in the vampire bat. Conference of Ford Fellows. Irvine, CA.
  9. Carter G. 2011. Evolution of Cooperation: why do unrelated vampire bats share food with each other? Conference of Ford Fellows. Irvine, CA. (poster)
  10. Carter G. 2011. Food Sharing Between Unrelated Vampire Bats: Cooperation, Byproduct, or Coercion? 41st North American Symposium on Bat Research, Toronto, ON.
  11. Carter G, R Mies, and G Wilkinson. 2011. Reciprocal food sharing in vampire bats revisited. 91st Annual American Society of Mammalogists Meeting, Portland, OR.
  12. Carter G, A Shaked, and G Wilkinson. 2010. Reciprocal food sharing in vampire bats revisited. 40th North American Symposium on Bat Research, Denver, CO.
  13. Carter G, J Ratcliffe, and B Galef. 2010. Spatial cues overshadow shape and scent cues in a fruit and flower bat. Animal Behavior Society Meeting, Williamsburg, NC.
  14. Carter G. 2009. Flower bats (Glossophaga soricina) and fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) rely on spatial cues over shapes and scents when relocating food. 39th North American Symposium on Bat Research, Portland, OR.
  15. Carter G, A Menchaca, M Nowak, and R Medellin. 2008. Do all three vampires duet? 38th North American Symposium on Bat Research, Scranton, PA.
  16. Carter G. 2008. Antiphonal exchanges allow individual discrimination in white-winged vampire bats. 88th American Society of Mammalogists Meeting, Brookings, South Dakota. (Winner of 2008 A. Brazier Howell Award)
  17. Carter G, M Skowronski, P Faure, and B Fenton. 2007. Vocal communication in white-winged vampires (Diaemus youngi). 14th International Bat Research Conference, Merida, Mexico.
  18. Carter G, M Skowronski, B Fenton and P Faure. 2007. Do adult vampires duet at night? Antiphonal calling among adult white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi). 87th American Society of Mammalogists Meeting, Albuquerque, NM.
  19. Carter G. 2006. Antiphonal calling behaviour in white-winged vampires (Diaemus youngi). 36th North American Symposium on Bat Research, Wilmington, NC.
  20. Carter G, C Coen. 2006. Investigating host preferences in the white- winged vampire (Diaemus youngi). Annual Bat Association of Taiwan Meeting. Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute, Taiwan.
  21. Carter G, I Lovette, J Hermanson. 2004. Noninvasive identification of the avian host species of white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) from fecal samples. 34th North American Symposium on Bat Research, Salt Lake City, Utah. (Winner of 2004 Bat Research News Award)


  • Contract Naturalist, Audubon Naturalist Society, Woodend Nature Sanctuary, 2011
  • Research Assistant, McMaster University with Jeff Galef and John Ratcliffe, 2009
  • Activity Leader at Tunbridge Afterschool Program, Tunbridge, VT. I developed and led an 8-week course called “Curious Naturalists” for K-6 students, 2007
  • Bat Specialist, Cusuco National Park, Honduras, Operation Wallacea, Summer 2005
  • Program Director, Ecology & Environmental Science, Camp Wakpominee, 2000-2002


Teaching assistantships: Mean student evaluation score = 3.8 out of 4 (University of Maryland Biology Department average = 3.2/4, college average = 3.1)

  • 2015    Principles of Animal Behavior, University of Maryland (UMD)
  • 2010    Principles of Genetics, UMD
  • 2009    Human Anatomy and Physiology, UMD
  • 2007    Introductory Biology, University of Western Ontario (UWO)
  • 2006    Animal Behaviour, UWO (2007 Graduate Student Teaching Award)
  • 2006    Introductory Biology, laboratory, UWO
  • 2004    Field Biology, Cornell University

Invited guest lectures

  • 2015    2 lectures, Animal Behavior, UMD College Park
  • 2013    1 lecture, Animal Behavior, UMD Baltimore County

Courses organized or co-organized

  • 2012     Graduate seminar on social network analysis, UMD
  • 2010     Graduate seminar on evolution of cooperation, UMD


Public Outreach Events

  • 2017   5 “Bat Nights“, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (every month)
  • 2016   12 “Bat Nights“, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (every month), “Bambi Talk” on Barro Colorado Island, and many small-group presentations
  • 2015     Caves and the origins of echolocation. National Speleological Society, DC Grotto, 5/21/15; Howard Hughes Medical Institute JumpStart Program
  • 2014     Museum of Texas Tech University. 10/30/14. Lubbock, Texas; Great Lakes Bat Festival. 9/28/14. Ann Arbor, Michigan (2,750 attendees); Public display volunteer with Organization for Bat Conservation at GM Wintergarden; Howard Hughes Medical Institute JumpStart Program; ATLAS Symposium for recruiting under-represented minorities in STEM
  • 2013     Great Lakes Bat Festival. 9/28/13. Southfield, Michigan (2,250 attendees); Cave bats and bat caves. National Speleological Society, DC Grotto, 9/12/13; Great Lakes Bat Festival. Two talks and all-day video presentation. 9/29/12. Southfield, Michigan.
  • 2012     Southfield Public Library. 9/28/12; raised $4,697 through the scientific crowdfunding site; Annandale, VA bat event 8/15/12; Arlington, VA Bat Festival 8/19/12; Howard Hughes Medical Institute JumpStart Program (also 2014, 2015), AIBS Cross-generational Conversation Event in DC
  • pre-2012     Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 12/22/10; 50+ voluntary public talks on bats at summer camps and other organizations


  •  Research co-mentoring: 14 undergraduates or recent graduates, 4 masters students, 1 PhD students, 3 high school students

Community service

  • Tutoring for GED at Our House Job Training Center for at-risk youth, 2010-2011
  • Mentoring for 4-H Urban Youth Program, 2003-2004

Peer Review for Journals

> 55 reviews. Listed by journal (number of reviews): PLOS ONE (13), Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (7), Ethology (5), Journal of Mammalogy (5), Proceedings B (3), Behavior (3), Scientific Reports (2), Royal Society Open Science (2), Animal Behaviour (2), Integrative and Comparative Biology (2), Acta Chiropterologica (2), Zoo Biology (2), Biology Letters (1), American Naturalist (1), Behavioural Ecology (1), Biotropica (1), Behavioral Processes (1), WIREs Cognitive Science (1), Bat Research News (1), and Frontiers in Comparative Psychology (1), and Philosophical Transactions B (1).

Professional memberships

North American Society of Bat Research (since 2004), American Society of Mammalogists (since 2006), Animal Behavior Society (since 2009)

Other service

  • served on the UMD Department of Biology Graduate Student Selection Committee
  • served as Student Representative for Behavior, Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics Student Taskforce, acting as a liaison between the student body and the department at the University of Maryland in 2012. I also led design of the website.
  • volunteered at the ATLAS Symposium for recruiting under-represented minorities in science, tech, engineering, and math.
  • designed logo for North American Society of Bat Research (declined monetary prize)
  • tutoring in introductory statistics for a teacher at the Gamboa Discovery School
  • Alyssa Stewart Service Award For Graduate Students Helping Other Graduate Students Which Is The Most Prestigious Service Award Offered Even Though You Can’t Write It On Your CV.”

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