• Carter G, Farine D, Wilkinson G. 2017. Social bet-hedging in vampire bats. Biology Letters. (link)(text)(PDF) press: Smithsonian, CS Monitor, UK Daily News, Globovision
  • Delpietro HA, Russo R, Carter G, Lord R, Delpietro G. 2017. Reproductive seasonality, sex ratio, and philopatry in Argentina’s common vampire bats. Royal Society Open Science. (open access)
  • Carter G, Wilkinson G, Page R. 2017. Food-sharing vampire bats are more nepotistic under conditions of perceived risk. Behavioral Ecology.  doi:10.1093/beheco/arx006 (PDF) (data)


  • Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2016. Common vampire bat contact calls attract past food-sharing partners. Animal Behavior. 116:45-51. (PDF) (data)
  • Wilkinson G, Carter G, Bohn K, Adams D. 2016. Non-kin cooperation in bats. Philosophical Transactions B. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0095 (PDF)
  • Carter G. 2016. Blood sharing in vampire bats. In: Shackelford TK, Weekes-Shackelford V (eds). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. (PDF)
  • Carter G, Bohn K. 2016. “Altruism” in nonkin. In: Shackelford TK, Weekes-Shackelford V (eds). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. (link)
  • Bohn K, Carter G. 2016. Reciprocal Altruism and Cooperation for Mutual Benefit. In: Shackelford TK, Weekes-Shackelford V (eds). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. (link)
  • Carter G. 2016. Nonhuman reciprocal altruism. In: Shackelford TK, Weekes-Shackelford V (eds). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. (link)


  • Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2015. Social benefits of non-kin food sharing by female vampire bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 282: 20152524. (PDF) (data)(supplement) press: SapiensNational Geographic,, Science News, Broadly
  • Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2015. Intranasal oxytocin increases social grooming and food sharing in the common vampire bat. Hormones and Behavior. 75: 150-153. (PDF) press: Newsweek
  • Carter G, Leffer L. 2015. Social grooming in bats: are vampire bats exceptional? PLOS One. 10(10):e0138430. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138430. (open access) (data) press: National Geographic,  NewStatesmanThe Australian,  iScience,  Nature World News
  • Carter G, Stewart A. 2015. The floral bat lure dimethyl disulphide does not attract the palaeotropical Dawn bat. Journal of Pollination Ecology. 17: 129-131. (open access)
  • Carter G, Schoeppler D, Manthey M, Knoernschild M, Denzinger A. 2015. Distress calls of a fast-flying aerial-hawking bat (Molossus molossus) provoke inspection flights but not cooperative mobbing. PLOS One. 10(9): e0136146. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136146  (open access) (data)


  • Carter, G. 2014. The reciprocity controversy. Animal Behavior and Cognition. 1(3), 368-386. doi:10.12966/abc.08.11.2014 (open access)
  • Kershenbaum A, D Blumstein, M Roch, C Akcay, G Backus, M Bee, K Bohn, Y Cao, G Carter et al. (42 authors) 2014. Acoustic sequences in non-human animals: A tutorial review and prospectus. Biological Reviews. doi:10.1111/brv.12160 (PDF)


  • Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2013. Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity? Communicative & Integrative Biology. 6:e25783. (open access)
  • Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2013. Cooperation and conflict in the social lives of bats. In: Adams, R, Pedersen, S (eds). Bat Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer Science Press. pg 225-242. (PDF) (e-book)
  • Carter G, Wilkinson G. 2013. Food sharing in vampire bats: reciprocal help predicts donations more than relatedness or harassment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 280: 1753. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2573 (open access, text supplement, videoposter, data) press: Current Biology, BBCEarth Sky, Science News

2012 and earlier

  • Carter G, R Logsdon, B Arnold, A Menchaca, R Medellin. 2012. Adult vampire bats produce contact calls when isolated: acoustic variation between species, colonies, and individuals. PLOS One. 7(6): e38791. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038791. (open access, “top 25% most cited PLOS ONE articles”)
  • Carter G, J Ratcliffe, and B Galef. 2010. Flower bats (Glossophaga soricina) and fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) rely on spatial cues over shapes and scents when relocating food. PLOS One. 5(5): e10808. (open access)
  • Carter G, B Fenton, and P Faure. 2009. White-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) exchange contact calls. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 87:604-608. (PDF)
  • Carter G, M Skowronski, P Faure, B Fenton. 2008. Antiphonal calling allows individual discrimination in white-winged vampire bats. Animal Behaviour. 76:1343-1355. (PDF) (Video supplement) press: Discovery News
  • Riskin D, S Parsons, W Schutt, G Carter, J Hermanson. 2006. Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) and the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). Journal of Experimental Biology. 209:1725-1736. (PDF) press: Slate, JEB
  • Carter G, D Riskin. 2006. Mystacina tuberculata. Mammalian Species. 790:1-8. (PDF)
  • Carter G, C Coen, L Stenzler, I Lovette. 2006. Avian host DNA isolated from the feces of white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi)Acta Chiropterologica. 8(1):255-259. (PDF) press: Living Bird

Data and media not associated with published paper

Carter, G. 2016. Footage of feeding by the hairy-legged vampire bat Diphylla ecaudata refutes the hypothesis that this vampire bat sucks. Figshare.

Carter, G. 2016. Footage of regurgitated food sharing among adult common vampire bats. Figshare.

Example posts from science blog

Other publications

  • Carter, G. 2015. Cooperation and social bonds in common vampire bats. PhD Thesis. University of Maryland.
  • Carter G. 2011. The future of bat research and conservation. Sonorensis Magazine: Celebrating Bats. Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. 31:1. (PDF)
  • Carter G. 2011. Food sharing in vampire bats. Bat Conservation Journal. Organization for Bat Conservation. Fall 2011 Issue.
  • Carter G. 2005. Bat diversity and abundance in Cusuco National Park core zone, Honduras. Internal report for Operation Wallacea, UK. (PDF)